Monday, 20 March 2017

A Duchess of Burgundy IV

Hue de Lannoy
An Engagement

In May 1438 Hue de Lannoy led a Burgundian embassy to England to discuss matters of trade and commerce. By August the question of a general peace, mediated by Burgundy was on the table. The principal negotiator for the English was Cardinal Beaufort once again, while Isabella was entrusted with speaking for the Burgundians.

The first conference was held in Gravelines in the summer of 1439; Isabella’s quartermaster was in charge of preparing the scenery. Isabella arrived in St Omer in late May where she and Philip set up court for a long stay.

Charles VII had agreed to send two of his daughters to Burgundy so that Philip could choose one of them as a bride for his son. The older of the two princesses, the ten year old Catherine was chosen and the couple were formally betrothed on 14th June[i]. Catherine’s dowry was properties located on the territories already ceded to Philip when he allied with the French[ii].

In mid-June, whilst involved in the negotiations Isabella received notice from the Chamber of Accounts in Lille that there were a number of territorial officials who were;

‘Allowing their accounts to go to perdition.’[iii]

A furious Isabella immediately wrote to demand that the responsible officials;

‘By return messenger present to me at St Omer the reasons why this occurred and the necessary solutions.’[iv]

The resultant information had to be sifted through and analysed at a time when Isabella was involved in complex international affairs.

Her Finest Hour

Cardinal Beaufort
Isabella met with her uncle Cardinal Beaufort at the beginning of July at Calais, in preparation for the conference. She was accompanied by Hue de Lannoy and two of her counsellors, Jacques de Crèvecoeur[v] and Jean Chevrot. It was agreed that Isabella would decide on the English delegates’ credentials while her uncle was to do the same for the French delegates. Isabella was made responsible for deciding how many armed men each delegate could bring to the conference which opened on the 6th July.

One of Isabella’s first tasks was to have the English delegates’ instructions amended, deleting the assertions that English victories during the conflicts were the results of God’s approval of English claims to the French throne. The French refuted the idea that the English were entitled to the French throne (with or without God’s endorsement).

Philip remained at St Omer during the conference; Isabella kept him up to date with daily messages reporting each day’s outcome. He would respond with his comments and instructions. At one point Isabella returned to St Omer when Philip was reported to be ill, she returned with a new peace plan which was turned down by the English.

The only outcome of the conference was a temporary truce, signed in September, between the Burgundians and the English covering the area around Calais. The truce covered trade, fishing, pilgrimage and finally;

‘A fine road to be marked out through the dunes between Calais and Gravelines, passing north of the castles of Marck and Oye, for the use of merchants of either side. But they are not to take dogs with them, nor hunt for rabbits in the dunes.’[vi]

Chateau de Blois
The French and English were unable to agree on the vexed question of Henry VI’s title of ‘King of France’ and the war dragged on.

On 19th May 1440 Catherine and Charles were married at Blois. As Catherine was only ten and Charles was seven the children lived apart. Catherine lived with Isabella to be taught how to be a Duchess of Burgundy. She was treated as a substitute daughter by her mother-in-law. Catherine, who had a frail constitution found the Flemish weather did not suit her and she was frequently sickly. However she followed Isabella on her journeyings through the Burgundian holdings.

Chasing Peace

Pope Pius II
Isabella was determined to forge a separate peace with England and to that end began preliminary talks with the English in Rouen, without Philip’s explicit permission. It was rumoured that Philip allowed Isabella to do as she wished. Pope Pius II claimed of her;

‘This woman soon applied herself to increasing her power and, exploiting her husband’s indulgence, she began taking everything in hand, ruling the t0wns, organizing armies, levying taxes on provinces and ruling everything in an arbitrary fashion.’[vii]

It was not until 31st May 1443 that a letter signed by the Duke of York announced the Perpetual Treaty of Peace. The treaty re-established peace between England and Burgundy and allowed for increased trade.

Meanwhile Charles VII was doing his best to undermine Philip’s imperial holdings. From his base in Nancy Charles threatened Toul, Verdun and Metz. Charles also refused to allow Philip the special privileges his rank entitled him to; allowing pardons or giving leniency to Philip’s Flemish vassals in the Paris Parlement. Charles of Orléans was unable to soften his cousin’s antagonism towards Burgundy, despite promising Isabella that he would make the attempt.

Philip meanwhile was ramping up his demands for René of Anjou’s ransom even as French troops attacked Flanders, Hainault and Picardy in the north while more attacks were made on Mâcon and the imperial county of Burgundy. At a meeting with the French Dauphin Louis in Laon Isabella was informed that the French wanted to absorb Philip’s lands into France. France’s attitude towards the Burgundians was sufficient to make many of the French supporting courtiers to reconsider their sympathies. Isabella was more than ever convinced that the secret of Burgundian security lay in an alliance with England.

Inter Family Rivalry

Philip (4th L) and Charles (5th L)
As a senior prince of the House of Valois[viii], Philip found it difficult to believe that his relations desired the destruction of his inheritance. In 1445 Philip turned to Isabella to deal with the rift in Franco-Burgundian relations. She travelled to Rheims to discuss a meeting in the summer. Burgundian demands were for the French to cease;

·         Their border raids on Burgundian territory

·         Pirate raids on Burgundian shipping

·         And to make reparations for the destruction of Burgundian villages and attacks on Burgundian merchants.

At Chalons in the summer Isabella was informed by the Marshal of Burgundy, Thibault de Neuchâtel, that French atrocities continued despite the negotiations;

‘Many times we have notified you of the damages done daily to your territories here by the écorcheurs[ix], daily they do unimaginable things to Montbéliard.’[x]

The faction at the French court who were pressing for the attacks on Burgundy were led by Queen Marie of Anjou, sister of René of Anjou, and René’s daughter Margaret, joint proponents for the Angevin[xi] faction. They wanted Philip to drop his calls for the payment of René’s ransom which was one of Philip’s main demands during the conference along with the confirmation of the Treaty of Arras by the Dauphin and other notables who had unaccountably failed to do sign the document. Philip’s other demand was for the French to leave Montbéliard.

All that Isabella could negotiate from the French in return for dropping René’s ransom was the promise to evacuate French troops from Montbéliard and a letter from Charles (obtained after paying a bribe of 6,000 gold crowns[xii]) postponing cases in the Paris parlement against Flemish merchants for non-payment of taxes and duty on goods. The letter was thereafter ignored by the French who also refused to fully ratify the treaty.


The Hundred Years War – Alfred Burne, Folio Society 2005

The Reign of Henry VI – RA Griffiths, Sutton Publishing Ltd 1998

Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 – George Holmes, Fontana 1984

The Fifteenth Century – EF Jacob, Oxford University Press 1997

Margaret of Anjou – Helen E Maurer, Boydell Press 2003

Isabel of Burgundy – Aline S Taylor, Madison Books 2001

Philip the Good – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2014

Charles the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2002


[i] The engagement lulled the Burgundians into a false sense of security
[ii] Charles had the option to buy back the territory and that buyback increased in value with the marriage to 520,000 eçus; In 2015 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £281,000,000.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £3,054,000,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £9,609,000,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £175,200,000,000.00. Charles could not afford the buyback as his treasury was empty and any monies he had were spent fighting the English
[iii] Isabella of Burgundy - Taylor
[iv] Ibid
[v] His son Philippe was to work for Philip’s son when Charles became duke
[vi] Philip the Good - Vaughan
[vii] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[viii] Albeit head of what was the Valois-Burgundy House
[ix] Flayers – whether this was meant literally or whether Neufchâtel meant that they were flaying the countryside is not known
[x] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[xi] Another junior branch of the House of Valois
[xii] In 2015 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £4,818,000.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £35,400,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £169,700,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £3,150,000,000.00

Tuesday, 14 March 2017

A Duchess of Burgundy III

Coudenberg (1659)
Isabella gave birth to her first child on 30th December 1430 at Coudenberg. The child, named Antoine was christened on 16th January 1431. He was a sickly child who was left alone by his parents who focussed on matters pertaining to Philip’s domains. Philip and Isabella were seldom apart during the spring and summer and Isabella was pregnant again by the autumn of that year with her second son Joseph.

While she was away in Ghent during January 1432 Isabella despatched someone to ensure that Antoine was well looked after. A short time later she also sent a member of the Ghent council. The council member returned to say that Antoine was feverish, his lungs were congested and he was eating very little. He was also irritable in the care of his wet nurse. Isabella despatched a further member of the court who returned with the sad news that Antoine had died alone in his nursery on February 5th.

Isabella blamed herself for leaving her son during his first major illness, although she was but obeying her husband’s orders, directing affairs in Ghent. On 11th February Isabella was presented with the Great Seal of Ghent which authorised her to conduct business in Philip’s absence. Isabella was assisted by Jean de Thoisy, Bishop of Liège.

With spring Isabella was able to travel and moved between Ghent and Brussels. Coudenberg Castle was filled with soldiers wounded fighting the French; Isabella had the oversight of the men’s treatment and as well as responsibility for the court at Ten Waele.

Joseph was born on April 24th 1432 at Ten Waele. Joseph was weak and listless and not very interested in feeding and was gradually growing weaker. He was baptised on 6th May and died when he was about four months old. Joseph was buried in the Abbey of St Michael in Ghent. His parents conducted pilgrimages to the Abbey of Ponthier and the shrines of St Anthony and St Josse. They returned to Ghent, a city in turmoil, in early August.

Nicolas Rolin (L)
The winter of 1432-3 saw Isabella and Philip spend most of their time while keeping an eye on the, for now quiet, Ghent. Isabella was pregnant again. But Philips’ southern territories were under French military pressure and Philip’s chancellor Nicolas Rolin[i] had been the potential victim of a kidnapping plot masterminded by Georges de la Trémoille[ii],

In mid-June 1433 Isabella joined Philip to travel to the southern half of Philip’s lands. Philip ordered that Isabella was to take over the administration of Dijon while he was in the field against the French. The ducal couple travelled in convoy until they reached Châtillon-sur-Seine. Isabella told Nicolas Rolin;

‘Be aware that your lady duchess demands that you always be in attendance to her advising her in the affairs of your lord. Further, in all the affairs of my lord and his lands, you will consult and advise me because I desire to use all my ability in the employ [of my lord] and to accomplish all the good I can.’[iii]

She was to find the men, supplies and money for Philip’s army.

It was not to be an easy task as Dijon’s economy was dictated by the needs of the great merchant families settled there. The French were continuously attacking the duchy, which impeded Isabella’s progress in dealing with the mayor, guilds and merchant families who controlled Dijon.


Isabella was able to obtain a loan from Odet Molain, who was Philip’s official salt merchant. She then called a meeting of the Estates of Dijon who grudgingly agreed to pay 4,000 francs[iv] to repair the city’s fortresses. Isabella ordered cannon from Ghent to place on the earthen ramparts that guarded Dijon.

Isabella managed to scrounge 1/20th of the city’s financial contributions towards Philip’s army from the controller of the mint. The town of Dôle gave her 23,000 francs[v] while Mâcon threatened to refuse her request. In return she threatened them with her personal attention. By the autumn Isabella had rallied the city’s defences.

Chartreuse de Champmol (1686)
Isabella had her last child Charles on 10th November 1433, he was born in Dijon. Within days, fearful that she would lose this third son of hers, Isabella had Charles consecrated to the Blessed Sacrament. Philip arrived in Dijon later in the month to attend his son’s baptism; the boy’s godfather was Charles of Nevers[vi]. Philip made his son Count of Charolais and inducted him into the Order of the Golden Fleece.

Isabella’s natural devotion to the church was intensified by her fear of losing Charles, lavishing gifts on the Chartreuse de Champmol. In the spring of 1434, when Philip returned to his campaigning, Isabella and Charles took refuge from the plague in the fortress of Talant. To avoid entering the plague-ridden city of Dijon to raise money to support Philip’s army, Isabella sold off many of the gifts she had been endowed with by the towns and cities of Philip’s domains.  

Journeying North

By early 1435 the danger of plague had passed and in April Isabella convoked the Dijon Estates to inform them that she and Charles were joining her husband in the north. Philip’s 1434 campaigning season had been a success and now he was meeting with the French king at Nevers.

Isabella left Dijon to the news that both English and French representatives were to join Philip at Arras for a congress between the warring parties Isabella and Charles arrived in Arras on 5th May. They did not stay there long as the party travelled on, arriving at Coudenberg on June 4th.

Arthur de Richemont
Isabella and her party returned to Arras on August 3rd where Isabella’s English uncle Cardinal Henry Beaufort, the Bishop of Winchester, was to represent the English in negotiations. The two main French representatives were two of Philip’s brother-in-law’s; Arthur Count of Richemont and Charles Duke of Bourbon.

Philip wanted his wife to act as a behind the scenes lobbyist for Burgundian interests at the congress. There were about 5,000 visitors in the town[vii]. The English and the French spent most of their time denouncing one another[viii], refusing to meet in the same room or attend divine service at the same time. Eventually the English flounced out of town on 6th September, it having become clear to them that the French were only interested in detaching the Burgundians from their English allies.

Negotiating for Peace

In the summer of 1436 Flanders burst out into rebellion against her overlord. The civic militia were demanding payment for their services in Calais. Isabella was forced to find 2,400 livres[ix] to fund the defence of the Flemish coast against English attacks. Isabella found herself meeting with the members of the Four Estates of Flanders without her husband.

Isabella (R)
Philip placed Isabella on the Financial Review Commission for all his territories on 25th October 1437. Philip was not interested in the administrative side of ruling; he preferred campaigning and enjoying the life of the super-rich. With the assistance of Hue de Lannoy Isabella was to become adept at winkling out the abuses within the duchy’s financial administration.

On 8th May 1438 Isabella attended a ceremony in Bruges to forgive those who had revolted against their overlord. Philip had refused to return to Bruges unless he was in the company of a greater prince than himself, difficult as Philip was the foremost noble in the region.

Isabella enjoyed her new duties, but she was perceived as ‘moody; overbearing and unreasonably jealous’ by the court where Isabella had tried so hard to fit in. When she first arrived Isabella’s clothes had been considered provincial and ugly; now her wardrobe glittered with the rich costumes fashionable in Burgundy.

Isabella had become suspicious of Philip’s dalliances with women, normal for a man of his position at the time. Every time Isabella treated Philip to a tirade, accusing him of manifest iniquities he loaded her with more responsibilities, thus increasing the divide between the two.

Isabella found herself increasingly isolated from her husband’s court and dependent on the advice of Hue de Lannoy and upon the love of her son. From 1437 Isabella increased her contributions to church foundations, including the Poor Clares.


The Hundred Years War – Alfred Burne, Folio Society 2005

The Reign of Henry VI – RA Griffiths, Sutton Publishing Ltd 1998

Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 – George Holmes, Fontana 1984

The Fifteenth Century – EF Jacob, Oxford University Press 1997

Prince Henry – Peter Russell, Yale University Press 2000

Isabel of Burgundy – Aline S Taylor, Madison Books 2001

Philip the Good – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2014

Charles the Bold – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2002


[ii] Charles VII’s Grand Chamberlain
[iii] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[iv] In 2015 the relative: labour cost of that project is £24,050,000.00 economic cost of that project is £1,491,000,000.00
[v] In 2015 the relative: labour cost of that project is £138,300,000.00 economic cost of that project is £8,570,000,000.00
[vi] Later accused of witchcraft in an attempt to supplant Charles as Philip’s heir
[vii] France alone sent 28 heralds and poursuivants while Bishop Beaufort had 800 horse in his train and he was only one of the English representatives
[viii] They were fighting for the control of Paris
[ix] In 2015 the relative: labour cost of that project is £14,810,000.00 economic cost of that project is £1,160,000,000.00

Tuesday, 7 March 2017

A Duchess of Burgundy II

Philip the Good
Offers of Marriage

It was to be another eight years before Isabella was to receive a second offer of marriage. By then her former suitor was long dead[i], leaving a babe in arms, Henry VI, as his successor and one of his brothers, John Duke of Bedford, as his regent overseeing the continuation of the war. Isabella’s second offer came from Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy who was in need of an heir. One of his courtiers, Jehan Gueniot[ii], commented that there was a choice of five suitable ladies;

‘It is said that there are five marriageable young women, hearty and handsome. That is to say Robert of Bar’s daughter[iii]; the two sisters of the King of Navarre[iv]; the king of Portugal’s daughter; and a noble English lady.’[v]

On 18th December 1428 Philip’s offer was placed before King John; his delegation was led by Philip’s chamberlain and chief counsellor, Seigneur de Roubaix. John called his sons to meet him at Aviz[vi] where he held his court. The Governor of Lille, Duke Baudoin de Lannoy, joined Roubaix and the Burgundian ambassador André de Chalonja on 19th January 1429 to present Philip’s proposal to John and his sons.

Baudoin de Lannoy
While the thirty-one year old Isabella was waiting for her fate to be decided she had her face painted in miniature by Philip’s order. The artist was Jan van Eyck[vii], Philip’s official court painter[viii]. Philip’s offer may have been prompted by Prince Peter’s visit to Burgundy in 1494-5; for Philip the marriage would help solidify trade between the merchants of Flanders and Portugal.

Philip also wanted to maintain an equilibrium in his relations with France[ix] and England. This was a reversal of his previous two marriages; his first wives had French connections. A Portuguese bride would help keep Burgundy balanced between the two combatants. The proposal was accepted and on 2nd February four messengers hastened back to Philip with the good news. After casting his eye on van Eyck’s miniature Philip was pleased to confirm the contract which was presented to King John on 11th June.

The Union Between Burgundy and Portugal

The marriage between Isabella and Philip took place by proxy on 24th July, the day after her father signed the contract. Seigneur de Roubaix stood in place of Philip. The following eight weeks were filled with entertainments; feasts, tournaments and morality plays as Portugal prepared to bid adieu to its princess. On 30th September King John and his sons led the flotilla of twenty ships that were to escort Isabella to Burgundy, from Lisbon to Porto where Isabella boarded.

The convoy left Portugal on 19th October heading for Sluys. The journey was made horrendous by terrible weather as the flotilla crossed the Bay of Biscay and then hugged the coastline for the remainder of the journey. Several boats sank and the fleet was dispersed, two ships arriving in Flanders a month before Isabella. Most of Isabella’s trousseau was washed overboard. Some of the fleet took shelter in Southampton before resuming their onward journey to Sluys.

Isabella disembarked on 26th December, with her brother Ferdinand and Seigneur Roubaix in attendance. She was weary after the long and dangerous voyage. Huge crowds, who had come to catch a first glimpse of their new duchess, meant created difficulties for Isabella and her entourage as they made their way to the lodgings provided for her in Sluys. It was not until 7th January at a religious ceremony that she and Philip were wed.

Isabella and Philip
Philip had arranged for four hundred carts[x] to bring raw materials for the feasting from his southern capital of Dijon, along with many more from Lille. The wedding was celebrated at Philip’s northern capital of Bruges at his palace, the Princehof. Bruges was a centre for artists, banking and weaving and spinning and had a population of around 200,000.

Isabella made her formal entrance into Bruges on 8th January and there followed a period of feasting and tournaments. The first banquet interspersed a series of tableaux between courses. At the final banquet where;

‘The pièce de résistance was a huge pie, containing a live sheep dyed blue with gilded horns,’[xi]

After the wedding Philip instituted the Order of the Golden Fleece. This was his attempt to bind his disparate lands together in a chivalric order based on the notions of Arthurian chivalry.

Introducing the New Duchess

Isabella’s new husband had a reputation as a womaniser; Philip had kept a bevy of mistresses while married the first two times. His first wife was Michelle of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France whose only child died in infancy. When Michelle died in 1422[xii] Philip then married Bonne of Artois[xiii]. Bonne died in 1425 without having given Philip a child.

Over his lifetime Philip had at least twenty-four mistresses[xiv] and at least eighteen illegitimate children of whom his favourites were Corneille and Anthony[xv]. Philip’s licentious lifestyle must have come as a shock to the pious Isabella. After marrying Isabella Philip took as his motto ‘Autre n’auray’[xvi] but it was generally understood to mean no other wife. Nevertheless Philip treated Isabella with all courtesy; according to Philippe Wielant[xvii];

‘Duke Philip always showed considerable affection for my lady, Isabel of Portugal, his wife, and always took her with him everywhere and lodged her near him.’[xviii]

One of Philips’ first actions after the wedding was to take Isabella on a triumphal progress around his domains, to introduce his new wife to his subjects. Jeanne de Harcourt[xix] was the new duchess’s companion, instructing her in the customs and practises of the profligate Burgundian court which was very different from what Isabella had been used to in Portugal.

The first point of call was Ghent where they arrived on 16th January. Travelling through Courtrai they arrived in Lille on 14th February and from thence journeyed on to Brussels, Arras, Peronne, Malines and then Noyon. In March Isabella, who was pregnant, chose to recuperate from her journey in Noyon. She stayed there for most of the spring of 1430.

Charles VII of France was energised by Joan of Arc into fighting for his crown and country; he succeeded in beating back the English. Following the capture of Joan in 1431 by Burgundian forces and her subsequent trial and burning at the stake by the English, Charles VII cancelled the truces arranged with Philip who prepared to lead his soldiers back into battle. In a letter of 19th January 1431, to his council in Ghent, Philip ordered his council in Ghent;

‘You will serve the duchess in her state and office representing me during my absence’[xx]

He appointed Isabella as administrator of his northern territories during the winter of 1430-1. Shortly before this appointment Isabella had proved her worth by negotiating payment of ten thousand guilders[xxi] in reparation for damages done to Namur by the men of Liège.


The Hundred Years War – Alfred Burne, Folio Society 2005

Joan of Arc – Kelly Devries, The History Press 2011

The Maid and the Queen – Nancy Goldstone, Penguin Books 2012

The Reign of Henry VI – RA Griffiths, Sutton Publishing Ltd 1998

Europe: Hierarchy and Revolt 1320-1450 – George Holmes, Fontana 1984

The Fifteenth Century – EF Jacob, Oxford University Press 1997

Joan of Arc – Edward Lucie-Smith, Penguin Books 2000

Isabel of Burgundy – Aline S Taylor, Madison Books 2001

Philip the Good – Richard Vaughan, Boydell Press 2014


[i] Dying of dysentery in August 1422
[ii] A Maître des Comptes from Dijon
[iii] Robert of Bar appears to have had two daughters unwed at this time; Bonne and Jeanne; it is not clear which one is referred to
[iv] Again it is not possible to ascertain exactly who the author of the letter referred to
[v] Philip the Good - Vaughan
[vi] Near the source of the Sorraia River
[vii] Famed for his painting of the Arnolfini Marriage in the National Gallery London
[viii] His salary was 100 French livres per annum. In 2015 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £70,510.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £614,100.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £2,252,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £39,790,000.00
[ix] He was the premier peer of France as well as being the sovereign Duke of Brabant and Limburg, Count of Flanders, Artois and Franche-Compté, Hainault, Holland, Zeeland, Namur (John III of Namur sold his county to Philip in 1429) and Charolais, in addition he was a Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire and Lord of Friesland
[x] Including 100 wagons of Burgundian wine, 15 cartloads of tapestries and 50 carts of furnishings and jewels. There was a further 50 carts of arms and armour to be used in the tournaments
[xi] Philip the Good - Vaughan
[xii] It was believed that she had been poisoned by one of her ladies-in-waiting who had been sent away from court just before Michelle’s death. The woman in question was not charged
[xiii] A widow whose first husband the Count of Nevers died at Agincourt
[xiv] He kept several mistresses at a time, based in various locations for ease of accessibility wherever he was during his travels; there were mistresses in Brussels, Arras, Louvain, Bruges and Lille amongst others
[xv] Corneille was given the title of Le Grand Bâtard du Burgoyne and this title passed to Anthony on Corneille’s death
[xvi] I will have no other
[xvii] A Flemish legal expert and historian, a contemporary of Philip’s
[xviii] Charles the Bold - Vaughan
[xix] Younger daughter of the Count of Harcourt John VII
[xx] Isabel of Burgundy - Taylor
[xxi] In 2015 the relative:historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £6,883,000.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £62,010,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £248,500,000.00 economic power value of that income or wealth is £4,427,000,000.00