|Nottingham Castle (Victorian reconstruction)|
On 30th March 1194 Richard presided at a meeting of the Great Council at Nottingham Castle; Geoffrey was present along with his stepmother, Hugh de Puiset, William Longchamp and Hugh of Lincoln. The great matter before the council was what to do with Prince John who was in cahoots with Philip of France. Longchamps was given back his old job as Chancellor while Richard paid a ransom for the return of Walter de Coutances
On 12th May 1194 Richard and Eleanor set sail for Barfleur with one hundred ships;
‘Laden with men, horses and arms.’[i]
Richard intended to win back his lands in Normandy, seized by Philip while Richard was in custody. Neither Richard nor his mother were to return to England. Instead he was to be embroiled fighting Philip and draining money from England in times of economic difficulty. Before Richard left England he appointed Walter as Justiciar.
In the summer, very possibly as a result of Geoffrey’s attempts to claim seniority of York over Canterbury, Walter began an investigation into Geoffrey's actions. Walter’s commission reported back that very little of Geoffrey’s time was wasted on clerical affairs, instead he spent his time hawking or hunting.
Geoffrey’s quarrels with his cathedral clergy had worsened to the point that, in one instance a member of the cathedral chapter threw the chrism on a dungheap in protest. The canons also objected to Geoffrey giving a large part of York's treasury toward Richard's ransom and they objected to some of his appointments in the church of York.
This led to Geoffrey's estates being confiscated once again. The canons Geoffrey had excommunicated were reinstated and Geoffrey was ordered not to issue sentences against canons without the consent of the whole body of canons.
At the end of 1194 Geoffrey left England to appeal directly to the king who by then was in Maine Richard over-ruled Walter, restored Geoffrey's estates, and pardoned him in return for a payment of 1,000 marks and the promise of 1,000 more to follow.
A Disputatious Cleric
In January 1195 Geoffrey was ordered to appear in Rome to answer charges of simony, extortion, and neglect of his duties lodged against Geoffrey by Puiset’s supporters. The ringleaders had been excommunicated by Geoffrey who had also locked the canons out of the Minster. Geoffrey was threatened with suspension from office if he did not appear by 1st June.
Geoffrey complained to the king, who was sympathetic until Geoffrey started rebuking Richard for his immoral life. Richard flew into a rage and confiscated Geoffrey’s estates once again. This loss of his estates left Geoffrey vulnerable when Walter held a legatine council at York in June 1195.
Geoffrey had managed to secure a postponement of his case at Rome until 1st November, but was still unable to attend, which led Pope Celestine to order that Geoffrey's suspension should be actioned by Hugh of Lincoln. Hugh protested, and as a result Celestine himself suspended Geoffrey on 23rd December 1195, finally forcing Geoffrey to answer the charges against him. He travelled to Rome in 1196, where his accusers were unable to substantiate their claims and he was restored to office by the pope.
News of Import
Eventually the new Pope Innocent III ordered on 28 April 1199 that Geoffrey was to be restored to his lands as soon as he had paid his debts to the king. Innocent further stipulated that any royal appointments in York would require papal approval.
Geoffrey’s canons were mixed in their response to the return of their archbishop. One, Simon Murdac announced that he would be happy to see Geoffrey return to his archdiocese. But Murdac was immediately excommunicated by the Dean, Simon of Apulia.
Before the pope could make any new rulings on the dissension between Geoffrey and his canons, the news arrived; Richard was dead. Richard died on 7th April 1199, after a wound from a stray quarrel turned gangrenous. The lucky shot came from one of the defenders of the chateau of Châlus- Chabrol, that Richard was besieging,. It was now the turn of Henry II’s youngest son to reign over the empire he had wrought.
John defies the Pope
In July 1205 Hubert Walter died and John tried to replace him with one of his own supporters[ii] who was rejected by the cathedral chapter. The stalemate continued until the end of 1206 when Innocent III nominated Stephen Langton. John refused Langton entry to the country[iii]. John threw out the monks of Canterbury and seized the cathedral revenues.
John and Geoffrey had enjoyed a relatively benign relationship when they were both younger and when he came to the throne John was prepared to be conciliatory to Geoffrey. He had enough on his plate with Arthur of Brittany also claiming his throne[iv]. Caught between John and Philip Arthur ended up flip-flopping to pay homage to Philip.
In an attempt to sort the problems emanating from York, John summonsed Simon of Apulia to attend his court at Westminster. Simon was persuaded to accept Geoffrey as his archbishop. In return Geoffrey recognised Simon as Dean of the chapter. On their return to York, when the Archdeaconry of Cleveland[v] fell vacant, the two men fell out again.
Geoffrey nominated one of his followers, but Simon nominated Hugh Murdac. Infuriated and his Angevin temper soaring, Geoffrey excommunicated the hapless Murdac. Both sides appealed to John who summonsed his brother to accompany him to France. Stupidly Geoffrey ignored the summons.
|Arthur pays homage to Philip|
Around the same time Geoffrey fell out with John over taxation issues and refused to allow his clergy to pay John’s latest tax raising whiz. The church’s lands were seized and Geoffrey and his clergy knelt before John to plead with him for a reversal of the seizures. Gervase of Canterbury recorded;
‘The king, in truth, threw himself at the archbishop’s [Geoffrey] feet and laughing and jeering said “Look my lord archbishop, even as you do so do I.”’[vi]
In the summer of 1207 Geoffrey fled abroad, followed by a number of the senior bishops. John seized his brother’s estates. Innocent III put the country under an interdict forbidding the clergy to take services[vii]. He also threatened to excommunicate John.
On 17th March 1208 John’s officers commenced their task of seizing church properties. By September the king was taking hostages from nobles whose loyalty was suspect. Roger of Wendover wrote;
‘King John….was afraid that, after the interdict, our lord pope would excommunicate him or absolve the nobles of England from allegiance to him. He therefore sent an armed force to all men of rank….and demanded hostages of them.’[viii]
On 27th May 1208 Innocent ordered an interdict on York should John fail to restore Geoffrey’s property. In August he wrote to both John and Geoffrey deploring their quarrel. Because of Geoffrey’s stance Geoffrey of Coldingham, a chronicler, claimed that the church in England church considered Geoffrey a martyr.
|Otto IV greets Innocent III|
Innocent excommunicated John in November 1209. John retaliated by taking over £100,000 worth of money from the clergy over the next two years. John’s treasury appropriated the revenues of the empty benefices and managed to raise enough money[ix] to fund ill-advised adventures abroad.
As well as raising the country’s military state of readiness, John set up a series of alliances to help defend his continental possessions. He allied with his nephew Otto IV the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I, the Count of Flanders and a number of northern European Dukes.
Geoffrey’s final years were spent in exile; Geoffrey died on 12th December 1212[x], at the monastery[xi] at Notre Dame du Parc near Rouen. He was buried there. Geoffrey was a disappointed man whose arrogance had cost him dear.
Philip Augustus – Jim Bradbury, Longman 1998
King John – Stephen Church, MacMillan 2013
Early Medieval England – MT Clanchy, The Folio Society 1997
Richard the Lionheart – John Gillingham, George Weidenfeld and Nicholson 1989
The Royal Bastards of Medieval England – Chris Given- Wilson and Alice Curteis, Barnes & Noble Books 1995
The Plantagenets – Dan Jones, William Collins 2012
Absolute Monarchs – John Julius Norwich, Random House 2011
King John – WL Warren, Yale University Press 1997
Eleanor of Aquitaine – Alison Weir, Jonathan Cape 1999
The Plantagenets – Derek Wilson, Quercus Editions Ltd 2014
[i] Philip Augustus - Bradbury
[iii] It was not until six years later that Langton was allowed into the country
[iv] As the only child of one of John’s older brothers. In 1202, in conjunction with Philip, Arthur waged war on Normandy
[v] One of the riches benefices in the York Archdiocese
[vi] King John - Warren
[vii] No-one could get christened, married or buried in consecrated ground.
[viii] King John - Church
[ix] Over £100,000; Comparisons of wealth are not calculated for before the year 1270, if these monies had been extracted then not in 1211-12, then In 2014 the relative: historic standard of living value of that income or wealth is £85,460,000.00 labour earnings of that income or wealth is £1,508,000,000.00 economic status value of that income or wealth is £3,572,000,000.00, economic power value of that income or wealth is £29,120,000,000.00 www.measuringworth.com
[x] The month before Geoffrey died John had agreed to accept Langton as his archbishop of Canterbury.